DREYER, W.A. 2015.
South Africa: The early quest for liberty and democracy. HTS Theological Studies, vol. 71(3)

Settler skills and colonial development: The Huguenot wine-makers in eighteenth-century Dutch South Africa. The Economic History Review, vol. 67(4)

“The Fruit of the Vine: An augmented endowments-inequality hypothesis and the Rise of an Elite in the Cape Colony” in Amsden, A., Robinson, J. and DiCaprio, A. The Role of Elites in Development. WIDER series on Economic Development. Oxford University Press.

COERTZEN, P. 2011.
The Huguenots of South Africa in documents and commemoration. NGTT, vol. 52(3)

COERTZEN, P. 2011.
The Huguenots of South Africa in history and religious identity. NGTT, vol. 52(1)

‘n Ongelyke Oes: die Franse Hugenote en die vroeë Kaapse wynbedryf. Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe, vol. 51(3).

An Unequal Harvest: The French Huguenots and early Cape wine-making. Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe, vol. 51(3), p.332-353.
English summary available here.

Settler skills and colonial development: The Huguenot wine-makers in eighteenth-century Dutch South Africa. The Economic History Review, vol. 67(4).

BRITS, D. 2009.
The French refugees in 20th century South African historiography.

The angle of incidence of Paul Roux’s catechism – a study on the theology of a French refugee at the Cape: research. Acta Theologica, vol. 23(2)

PLOEGER, J. 1988.
Die verspreiding van die Franse Hugenote. South African Journal of Military History, vol. 18(2)

PLOEGER, J. 1973.
Die godsdienstig-kulturele bydrae van die Hugenote tot die Afrikaanse volkswording. HTS Teologiese Studies, Vol. 29(1/2)


1. The list of Bibles, psalm books and other books as listed in the inventory
2. Jean and Gabriel Leroux (Le Roux)
The Le Rouxs in South Africa are descended from two cousins, Jean and Gabriel Leroux, from Mer in the Orléanais. They, as well as Gabriel’s mother, the widow Anne Bourdon, were forced to abjure their reformed faith in Blois. Once they had escaped to the Dutch Republic, the two cousins and Estienne Bruère (also from Mer) publicly renounced their recantment on 25 June 1687. They arrived at the Cape in April 1688 on the Voorschoten. Jean and Gabriel were allotted the farms Parys and La Concorde situated along the Berg River, near Paarl. Tragically both drowned in 1711. Crossing raging rivers was one of the biggest hazards at the Cape.
3. Pierre Labuscaigne (Labuschagne) and Marie Anne Bacot
Pierre Labuscaigne fled his home in Bergerac in France in 1696 and sought refuge in Amsterdam. By July 1697, Pierre, a tailor like his father and uncle, was registered as a member of the Walloon Reformed congregation in Amsterdam. He moved to Enkhuizen where he married Marie-Anne Bacot from Leeuwarden in Friesland. Pierre, who joined the VOC as a drummer in 1710, left for Batavia in 1711, expecting to return to his wife and children on the home-coming fleet. However, he suffered such sea-sickness that he was put ashore at the Cape. When he was discharged from hospital, he found employment as a tutor to Jacques de Villiers’s children on the farm, La Bri. Later he taught Pierre Jaubert’s children at La Provence and then Phillipe Mesnard’s children at Calais.In 1716, while still in the employ of the VOC, he was appointed church warden in Drakenstein. The local Huguenot community gave him land on which to build a cottage. In 1717, his family in the Dutch Republic was finally able to join him and he received his discharge from the VOC. In 1723, the Political Council officially granted him ownership of the land he had occupied for seven years. The family turned the property into the wine farm called Pontac in the present-day Paarl. He died in 1742 and Marie Anne died the following year.
4. Paul and Jeremias Roux
Although his written French was not good, like Pierre Simond, Paul Roux helped Huguenots to maintain French Protestant religious and cultural practices. On 8 November 1688, he was appointed parish clerk and reader (voorlezer) of the Drakenstein congregation and also schoolmaster. From 1694 to 1713, he meticulously kept the baptismal register in French, after which the records were kept in Dutch. Paul Roux also adapted Johannes d’Outrein’s (1622–1722) catechism as the Paulus Roux: Belijdenis des Geloofs, which he used to prepare young people for membership. He also served as a deacon and sick comforter until his death on 23 February 1723. His death deprived 26 elderly monolingual Huguenots of the opportunity to worship in French. Paul Roux’s son, Jeremias Roux was given permission to establish a school where the children could be taught in French. For a few years, like his father, he was the church warden and he occasionally read from the French Bible during a service.

5. The Jourdan (Jordaan) family
The refugee history of the Jourdans reflects the close family networks found in the Aigues valley of the Luberon. Two years after recanting their reformed faith in October 1685, the Jourdans (Marie, Jean, Paul, Piere (Saint-Martin) and Pierre (Cabrières) decided to leave France and seek refuge in the Dutch Republic. They were joined by other Luberon families such as the Jauberts, Courbons, Granges, Rouxs, Malans and Mesnards. Along the way, they received aid in Geneva and in Frankfurt. Together with about 35 other Huguenot refugees, they left Goeree on board the China on 2 March 1688 and arrived in Table Bay on 4 August. Jean and Pierre, brothers from Belle Étoile, Saint-Martin de la Brasque, and Pierre Jourdan from Cabrières-d’Aigues (not a relative) were the only Jourdans to survive the voyage.

6. Jean-Prieur Duplesis (Du Plessis)
Jean-Prieur Duplesis was born in 1638 in the town of Poitiers in the Poitou-Charente region of west-central France. The Royal Declarations of the 1680s meant he could no longer practise as a barber-surgeon because he was member of the Reformed religion. Jean-Prieur left France in 1687 for the French Caribbean island of Saint Christopher. He married Madeleine Menanteau, also from Poitiers, on the neighbouring island of Saint Thomas in June 1687. Soon after their wedding, they sought refuge in the Dutch Republic. On 29 January 1688, the couple sailed from Wielingen on board the Oosterland. Their son, Charl, who was born at sea, was baptised on board ship on 18 April 1688. The family arrived at the Cape seven days later. Duplesis and his family settled in Stellenbosch where he worked as a barber-surgeon and a part-time farmer. Unable to support his wife and two children, he asked permission to return to Europe with his family when he reached the end of his contract. The VOC allowed him to defer payment for the passage. On 12 June 1693, the family boarded the Sirjansland for Veere in Zeeland. They family spent some time in Ireland where their daughter, Judith, was born. In 1702, Jean-Prieur Duplesis returned to the Cape with his second wife, Marie Buisset (41 years his junior), and settled in the Banghoek Valley in Stellenbosch. He died six years later on 7 December 1708 at the age of 70. His eldest son Charl, who was trained as a barber-surgeon by him, practised at the Cape and in Drakenstein from 1712 until his death in 1737. Marie Buisset was a qualified midwife who also conducted autopsies at the Cape.

7. The Vivier (Viviers) brothers
The three Vivier brothers from Normandy, Abraham, Jacques and Pierre, were exiles in Zierikzee, Zeeland when they left for the Cape on 24 April 1688 on board the Zuid-Beveland. Like many refugees, they received hand-outs from the Walloon church, the final one recorded on 28 March 1688 as “for the three departing Viviers”. Abraham married the 16-year-old Jacquemine des Prez, when he was 41 years old. He was the only one of the brothers to marry, making him and Jacquemine the primogenitors of the Viviers family in South Africa. Eight of their nine children reached adulthood. The three Vivier brothers died during the smallpox epidemic of 1713, and Jacquemine died one year later when she was 36 years old. Her eldest son was 18 and her youngest daughter, Anna, was baptised at Drakenstein in that January. Anna’s godparents, Marie-Jeanne des Prez (Jacquemine’s sister) and her husband, Jacques Therond, assumed responsibility for raising the five Vivier daughters.

8. Jacques (Jacob) Bisseux and Marie Lefebvre
Jacques (Jacob) Bisseux, a baker from Picardy, fled to Middelburg in Zeeland as the persecution of Huguenots intensified in France. Along with his wife, Marie Lefebvre, and their two sons, the Bisseaux family left Wielingen on 26 April 1696 aboard the Vosmaar. During what was to be a disastrous voyage, ninety-four people died, including five of the ten Huguenots who were on board. On 7 September, the ship’s logbook recorded the death of Jacques and Marie’s son, Paul. Marie died soon after arriving at the Cape. Jacques worked as a baker and a grocer and married Isabeau Pochox in 1700.

9. André Mellet
André Mellet from Nîmes and his recently wedded wife, Marie Gautier, arrived at the Cape in 1731 accompanied by Marie’s uncle, the merchant Gilles Soullier (Sollier), and his wife, Anne Roulain. Mellet settled in Table Valley where he worked as a baker and ran a guest house that was popular with French visitors. In 1748, he was repatriated to the Netherlands for dealing in stolen Company goods.

10. Pierre Grange (La Grange)
Pierre Grange left his hometown, Cabrières-d’Aigues, after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Like other Protestant refugees from the Luberon, Grange and his cousin, the mason Louis Courbon, escaped by crossing the Alps into the Swiss cantons. From there they made their way northwards up the Rhine Valley to Frankfurt. Their privation is reflected by the fact that Louis Courbon had no shoes when he arrived in Frankfurt. Both Pierre and his cousin survived the ill-fated voyage on China and worked as masons at the Cape. 10. François Guillaumé (Giliomee) François Guillaumé (also Guillaumet) was a Huguenot tailor from Berlin, who had left the Languedoc as a child. He and his wife, Claudine Eloy, and their four children came to the Cape to start a silk industry. Problems with the cultivation of mulberry trees and the hatching of silkworm eggs frustrated Guillaumé’s best efforts. He abandoned the project in 1732 to become a free burgher in Stellenbosch. Matthieu, his son, persisted for a few more years before becoming a blacksmith and small-scale farmer at Vlottenburg, Stellenbosch.

11. Suzanne Briet
Suzanne Briet was from a wine growing family in Monneaux in the historic Champagne region. She was married to the hat maker Isaac Taillefert from the nearby village of Château-Thierry. Isaac and Suzanne arrived with their six children on board the Oosterland in April 1688. At the Cape, Isaac continued to work as a hatter. In 1689 Isaac received the farm Picardie on the Berg River in Paarl and his son Jean the adjoining farm La Brie (Laborie) named after his place of origin. They worked the farm as one unit. When he called at the Cape in 1698, the French adventurer François Leguat visited the farm. His travelogue published in 1708 describes Taillefert: “He has the best wine in the country, and which is not unlike our small wines of Champagne”. Suzanne Briet continued farming after her husband’s death, and did so very successfully, according to the tax rolls. In 1700, she had 36 head of cattle and 12,000 grapevines. By 1709, she had 80 head of cattle, 400 sheep, 20,000 vines and she had doubled her wheat production.

12. Jean Durand (Durand, Du Rand, Du Randt)
Jean Durand was a barber-surgeon from the small village of La Motte-Chalancon in the Drôme department. He is thought to have fled France in 1687. He received assistance in Geneva, thereafter in Schaffhausen and finally Amsterdam. He left Texel on board the Wapen van Alkmaar in August 1688 and arrived at the Cape in January 1689. In 1702, Jean Durand married 16-year-old Anna Vermeulen, daughter of Jan Vermeulen of Utrecht and Catharina Opklim from Bengal (a freed slave). The sickly Anna died in 1713. The couple had two daughters, Johanna and Susanna. Jean’s second marriage was to Wilhelmina van Zijl, the 18-year-old daughter of his neighbour. Jean and Wilhelmina had six children. Two sons, Jan and Jonathan, carried on the Durand line in South Africa.

13. Gidéon Malherbe
Gidéon Malherbe came from Normandy, arriving at the Cape on the Voorschoten in 1688. He married Marie Grillon from the commune of Mer close to Blois. In 1694, he was allotted the farm Normandie in Drakenstein, but he did not receive the title deed until 1713. His position strengthened significantly between 1700 and 1715 when he inherited his good friend Philippe Drouin, and then Philippe’s father’s entire estate. This included the farm, De Groene Fonteyn in the Wagenmakersvallei. Like many men at the Cape, Phillipe Drouin remained a bachelor. In 1705, male settlers outnumbered females by an even greater margin than in 1682. In areas like the Drakenstein, there were 227 men for every 100 women.

14. Jacques Malan and Isabeau le Long
In 1688, Jacques arrived as a 16-year-old orphan on board the China. As so often the case at the Cape, it was a widow who lay behind his road to economic and social advancement. In 1699, when he married Isabeau le Long, Jean Jourdan’s widow, he gained access to considerable seed capital. He used this between 1702 and 1733 to acquire property that put him and his family on the road to fortune and prestige. The couple settled on the farm La Motte (near the present-day Huguenot Memorial Monument) in Oliphantshoek (Franschhoek). Between 1702 and 1733, Jacques purchased no fewer than 12 farms as well as two erven in Table Bay, selling many of them no doubt for profit during that time. On the death of his wife in 1736, Jacques Malan’s net worth was estimated at more than 86,000 guilders. In one generation the Huguenot orphan had become a very affluent member of the Cape’s landed gentry, demonstrating the upward mobility that was possible at the Cape for a Huguenot refugee with entrepreneurial flair. Jacques and Isabeau were both buried under the floor in the Dutch Reformed Church (Moedergemeente) in Stellenbosch.

15. Sara Vitu and Jacques Delporte (Delport)
Sara Vitu from Guînes (Wijnen) in Picardy and her husband, Jacques Delporte (born near Lille in Flanders), arrived at the Cape in April 1699 on board the Kattendijk. They settled in Drakenstein where Jacques worked as a knecht (or farmhand). By 1707, Jacques was employed by Pierre Cronier on the farm Versailles in the Wagenmakersvallei. Jacques received the farm, Dekkersvlei, in 1721. He had so little success as a farmer that the family had to depend on financial aid from the Drakenstein congregation. in 1710, 1713 and again in 1716, Sara was granted 36 guilders because they were too poor to clothe their six children. Sara died in 1724 and Jacques in December 1739.

16. Pierre Jaubert (Joubert) and Isabeau Richarde
Pierre Jaubert and Isabeau Richarde were arguably the most successful of the Huguenot farmers. Pierre had fled France in 1685 for Switzerland, and made his way from there along the Rhine River until he reached Rotterdam. He was 24 years old when he arrived at the Cape on board the China from Rotterdam in August 1688. The China carried 175 passengers, 28 of them Huguenot refugees. Nineteen passengers, including 13 Huguenot refugees from the Luberon, died en route. Among them were Jaubert’s first wife (Suzanne Reyne) and Isabeau Richarde’s husband (Pierre Malan). When the ship arrived in Table Bay there were 50 sick people on board. Pierre Jaubert married Isabeau Richarde en route to the Cape. Pierre and Isabeau received the farm La Provence in Oliphantshoek in 1694 and lived there until Pierre’s death in 1732. They bought numerous other farms in Drakenstein and the Land van Waveren. At the time of his death, 44 years after his arrival at the Cape, Pierre and his wife owned 14 farms and a townhouse at the Cape. They employed seven tutors for their 11 children. Isabeau continued farming for at least ten years after Pierre’s death. Pierre’s Bible is on display in the ‘Sacred Texts’ exhibit (Bible No.2).

17. Marie Mouton and Titus of Bengal
On 20 July 1699 a 9-year-old Marie Mouton arrived at the Cape from Middelburg on the Donkervliet with her parents Jacques Mouton and Marie de Villiers, and sisters Madeleine and Marguerite. Her mother died soon afterwards, leaving Jacques to care for his young family. At the age of 16, Marie married Frans Jooste who was at least 15 years her senior. Marie moved into his homestead at the foot of the Elandskloof Pass, not far from the farm her parents had been allocated in the Land van Waveren in the Vier-en-Twintig Rivieren area. In 1714, she was accused of murdering her husband with the aid of their slaves, Titus of Bengal and Fortuijn of Angola. An unusual detail that emerged during the trial is that Jooste’s body was hidden in a porcupine hole on the edge of the wheat field on the farm. During her trial, Marie testified that her husband had treated her badly and that she had not had new clothing from him in the past nine years. Eyewitnesses reported that Marie Mouton and Titus of Bengal were lovers, having committed adultery for a long time before the murder of her husband. Marie’s contemporaries found her actions shocking. She was sentenced to death for murder. Other Huguenot women who had sexual relations with their slaves were censured by the church: Suzanne de Puis in 1716 and Cecilia du Preez in 1765. Marie, Titus and Fortuijn all suffered severe and gruesome punishments and death for murder. Marie Mouton was the only white woman to be executed at the Cape during the eighteenth century.

18. Jean Duthuilé
Like other Huguenots, Jean Duthuilé had a promising start to his life at the Cape in 1699 when he was allocated the farm Hexenberg in the Wagenmakersvallei (Wellington). However, when one of his slaves and a Khoikhoi worker died, after he had cruelly punished them on suspicion that they had stolen some keys, Jean fled into the vast and unknown interior. He was found guilty in absentia and sentenced to death. Duthuilé reappeared in London in 1718.

19. Charles Marais and Edischa
Charles Marais, a member of the Le Plessis Marly congregation near Longvilliers in the Hurepoix region of the Île de France, arrived on the Voorschoten with his wife, Catherine Tabourdeux, and their four children in April 1688. Marais named his Drakenstein farm Le Plessis Marle (today Plaisir de Merle) after his place of origin. One year after their arrival, Charles got into an altercation with two Khoikhoi men, Edischa and Rooman (members of Chief Jantjie’s clan in the Drakenstein area), who were looking for wild almonds in the veld behind the Simonsberg. On Marais’s farm, they came across green watermelons which he forbade them to pick. Edischa ignored Charles’s instruction and when he found the melons were green and tasteless he threw pieces of watermelon and stones at the farmer. One of the stones severed the artery in Charles Marais’ left groin which led to his death five days later. Edischa was sentenced to death by the Council of Justice, but he was handed over to his clan to be beaten to death by sticks.

20. Estienne and Pierre Cronier and Matthieu Frachasse
In 1707 the brothers Estienne and Pierre Cronier brothers were involved in a skirmish with Khoikhoi labourers on Pierre’s farm in which two Khoikhoi were fatally wounded. Pierre’s plea of self-defence (delivered in French) was not accepted by the Council of Justice. However, his sentence of banishment for 25 years was never carried out. This contrasts with the fate of Matthieu Frachasse from Lourmarin in the Luberon who was exiled from the Cape in 1711 for stealing cattle from the Khoikhoi.

21. Matthieu Amiel and Chief Dorha
The Company forbade bartering between the Free Burghers and the Khoikhoi because they were determined to retain the monopoly of stock trade. Many colonists ignored this and engaged in illegal trading. Matthieu Amiel of the farm Terra de Luc in Oliphantshoek assisted the farmers involved, offering them overnight accommodation and acting as their guide in crossing the mountains in return for some cattle or sheep. When Chief Dorha, also known as Claas, reported the illegal bartering to the Company in January 1696, the Company officials were particularly angered to find that the Huguenots owned more stock than the Company.

22. Gérard Hanseret
Gérard Hanseret was married to Gabrielle Wavrand. Their two children did not accompany them to the Cape. Their son, Jan Joseph, had died as an infant, and their daughter, Marie-Gabrielle, was already an adult when they left. Gérard operated as a mason in Stellenbosch and farmed in partnership with Pierre Rochefort on the farm, Vlottenburg. It seems that he never broke his ties with his hometown, St Omer in Artois, as his will was filled with bequests to family and friends there. In 1718, he returned to Europe. In order to recoup the cost of bringing the Huguenots to the Cape, the VOC required immigrants to remain at the Cape for at least five years.

23. List of Huguenots who left the Cape


24. Marie Buisset
Marie Buisset, a qualified midwife, was the first woman to perform an autopsy at the Cape. She arrived in 1702 as the second wife of Jean-Prieur Duplesis, a barber-surgeon. She continued practising as a midwife and a farmer after the death of her husband. To protect herself, she bought two pistols with holsters and ammunition at an auction. She was known to treat all patients alike, writing fearless forensic reports and taking sick slaves to her home on horseback. She married another barber-surgeon, Dietrich Schnitt in 1711, and assisted him as an informal medical practitioner.

25. Louis Fourié
Louis Fourié arrived at the Cape from Pontaix in the Dauphiné in 1689. He married Suzanne Cordier from the Orléanais region in 1694. After her death, he married Anne Jourdan in 1716. At the time, Anne was 18, three years younger than his eldest daughter. Louis fathered 21 children. Ten children (six daughters and four sons) were born from his first marriage and 11 (four daughters and seven sons) from his second. In 1699, Louis received the farm De Slange Rivier in Wagenmakersvallei. By 1707, a small Huguenot colony, 19 adults and several children, was living there on adjacent farms.

26. Jeanne de Clercq
On 26 April 1688 Jeanne (Jannetjie) de Clercq arrived at the Cape on the Oosterland, along with her mother and brothers. She married André Gauche, whose first wife, Jacqueline Décre, and their daughter, Marie, had died in Europe or en route to the Cape in 1691. André died a violent death in 1698 leaving Jannetjie with four small children of her own and her stepson Steven. In the same year, she married the abusive Pieter Becker. He was sentenced to four years of hard labour on Robben Island and banished from the Cape for his barbaric treatment of his slaves. Jannetjie had a daughter, Johanna, as the result of an extra-marital relationship with the VOC corporal, Mattheus de Maker. She divorced Becker in 1715. Pregnant again, and the mother of nine children at this stage she received a loan farm in the Land van Waveren (Tulbagh) on the northeastern frontier of the colony. Judged to be a successful farmer, she received the title deed to Straatkerk, which she named after her town of origin in Zeeland (Serooskerke also known as Straatkerke).

27. Marguerite-Thérèse de Savoye
Marguerite-Thérèse, who was born in Ghent, Flanders was the daughter of the prosperous trader, Jacques de Savoye. She arrived at the Cape on 25 April 1688 with her family. She married Christoffel Snijman (Snyman), who was born into slavery in 1688. Christoffel was the illegitimate child of the soldier, Hans Christoffel Snijman, and the first woman convict banished to the Cape, Catharina van Paliacatta (known as Groote Catrijn). During VOC governance at the Cape, European immigrants married freed, baptised former women slaves. Their mixed descendants were assimilated into the free burgher community. Marguerite-Thérèse and Christoffel’s marriage was the first example of a marriage between a man of mixed descent and a white woman. She and her husband, who had nine children, were the primogenitors of the Snyman family in South Africa. After Christoffel died in 1705, she married Henning Villion (Viljoen) and had four more sons who continued the Henning line of the Viljoen family. Her daughter, Catharina Snijman, married Henning’s brother, Johannes, and they became the primogenitors of this line of the Viljoen family.

28. Anne Prévost
Anne Prévost, who was born in Marck, Calaisis in 1681 became the female primogenitor of the Van der Merwe family. Anne came to the Cape aged seven with her parents, Charles Prévost and Marie Lefebvre, and her brothers, Abraham and Jacob, and sister, Elizabeth. They arrived on the Schelde in June 1688. A second brother, Jacob, was born at sea. Her father died a month later. Her mother married three more times: to Hendrik Eckhoff, Louis de Péronne and Hercule des Prés Jnr. Anne married Schalk Willemsz van der Merwe when she was 15 years old and had ten sons and six daughters between 1697 and 1725. She gave birth to her first child at 16 and her 17th at 44. Ancestral lines with the founder’s genetic effect, Huntington's Chorea, have Anne's daughter, Sophia van der Merwe, as a common ancestor. Anne’s sister, Elisabeth Prévost, who married Philippe des Prés had seven sons and four daughters. Elisabeth was one of the primogenitors of the Du Preez family. 29. Pierre Roux Pierre Roux, an agriculturist from Cabrières-d’Aigues, lost his wife, Madeleine Goirande during the voyage from Amsterdam to the Cape on the Wapen van Alkmaar (1688/9). Pierre, who remained a bachelor, spent time with Louis Barré on his farm La Roque in Drakenstein before receiving the farm Winterhoek in August 1694. He returned to Amsterdam in 1700, but was back at the Cape by 1718 and bought the farm, Paarl Diamant. In 1725, he sailed for Batavia but returned in 1730 and settled permanently at the Cape. He bequeathed his worldly goods to Daniel Malan (son of Jacques), owner of Morgenster, who cared for him in his old age. Other Huguenots whose carers were their sole heirs were Philippe Drouin (to Gidéon Malherbe) and Jean Imbert (to Pierre Jaubert).


God bless the Good ship China.

Pierre de Cabrières and Pierre de Belle Etoilé.

In search of the Soul of the Afrikaner.

Die Vlaamse Hugenote. ’n lesing gehou in die Missaksentrum vir die bevordering van die Vlaamse en Armeense kultuur op Woensdag, 23 November 1988.

RIDGE, S.G.M. 2020.
Natal Huguenot connections: the Nels.


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